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Cooling System. Chasis and Suspension. Transmission System 8. This is known as the resistivity or specific resistance of the material. Temperature — most metals increase in resistance as temperature increases. Figure 2. Resistors are used to control the current flow in a circuit or to set voltage levels. They are made of materials that have a high resistance.
Resistors for high currents are usually wire wound. Resistors are often shown as part of basic electrical circuits to explain the principles involved. The circuits shown as Figure 2. In other words, the circuit just showing resistors is used to represent the other circuit. When resistors are connected so that there is only one path Figure 2.
The applied voltage equals the sum of the volt drops around the circuit. Electrical and electronic principles 15 Figure 2. The total current equals the sum of the current flowing in each branch. The current splits up depending on each component resistance. The space around a magnet in which the magnetic effect can be detected is called the magnetic field.
The shape of magnetic fields in diagrams is represented by flux lines or lines of force. Like poles repel. Lines of force in the same direction repel sideways, in the opposite direction they attract.
Current flowing in a conductor will set up a magnetic field around the conductor. The strength of the magnetic field is determined by how much current is flowing.
If a conductor is wound into a coil or solenoid, the resulting magnetism is the same as a permanent bar magnet. Electromagnets are used in motors, relays and fuel injectors, to name just a few applications. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field is caused because of two magnetic fields interacting. This is the basic principle of how a motor works.
The direction of the induced voltage depends upon the direction of the magnetic field and the direction in which the field moves relative to the conductor. The voltage level is proportional to the rate at which the conductor cuts or is cut by the magnetism.
This effect of induction, meaning that voltage is made in the wire, is the basic principle of how generators such as the alternator on a car work.
A generator is a machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. This happens when a current to the primary coil is switched on and off. If the number of turns of wire on the secondary coil is more than the primary, Figure 2. If the number of turns of wire on the secondary coil is less than the primary a lower voltage is obtained.
The turns ratio between primary and secondary coils. The speed at which the magnetism changes.
This is effectively the same as the series circuit statement that the sum of all the voltage drops will always equal the supply voltage. Gustav Robert Kirchhoff was a German physicist; he also discovered caesium and rubidium. The ratio of voltage to current is referred to as resistance. The law is named after the Estonian physicist Heinrich Lenz.
Automobile electrical and electronic systems
In other words, the change could be produced by changing the magnetic field strength, moving the magnetic field towards or away from the coil, moving the coil in or out of the magnetic field, rotating the coil relative to the magnetic field and so on! The current flowing into a junction in a circuit must equal the current flowing out of the junction.
This law is a direct result of the conservation of charge; no charge can be lost in the junction, so any charge that flows in must also flow out. Any change in the magnetic field around a coil of wire will cause an emf voltage to be induced in the coil. The left hand is used for motors, and the right hand for generators remember gener-righters. The English physicist John Fleming devised these rules. The intention is to describe briefly how the circuits work and, more importantly, how and where they may be utilized in vehicle applications.
The circuits described are examples of those used and many pure electronics books are available for further details. Overall, an understanding of basic electronic principles will help to show how electronic control units work, ranging from a simple interior light delay unit, to the most complicated engine management system. In other words, the magnetic field around an electric current is proportional to the electric current which creates it and the electric field is proportional to the charge which creates it.
A simple and brief description follows for many of the components shown. Resistors are probably the most widely used component in electronic circuits. Two factors must be considered when choosing a suitable resistor, namely the ohms value and the power rating. Resistors are used to limit current flow and provide fixed voltage drops.
Most resistors used in electronic circuits are made from small carbon rods, and the size of the rod determines the resistance. Carbon resistors have a negative temperature coefficient NTC and this must be considered for some applications.
The Automobile magazine v. 4 no. 1-7 Jan.-July 1902
Thin film resistors have more stable temperature properties and are constructed by depositing a layer of carbon onto an insulated former such as glass. The resistance value can be manufactured very accurately by spiral grooves cut into the carbon film.
For higher power applications, resistors are usually wire wound. This can, however, introduce inductance into a circuit. Variable forms of most resistors are available in either linear or logarithmic forms. The resistance of a circuit is its opposition to current flow. A capacitor is a device for storing an electric charge. In its simple form it consists of two plates separated by an insulating material. One plate can have excess electrons compared to the other.
On vehicles, its main uses are for reducing arcing across contacts and for radio interference suppression circuits as well as in electronic control units.
Capacitors are described as two plates separated by a dielectric. The sheets are Electrical and electronic principles 19 Figure 2.
To achieve higher values of capacitance it is necessary to reduce the distance between the plates in order to keep the overall size of the device manageable. The problem, however, is that this now makes the device polarity conscious and only able to withstand low voltages.Rent and save from the world's largest eBookstore.
They replaced the thermal-type valves. So, i thought to share this excellent eBook in the pdf format for you all to download and study. Due to integrated circuit technology, it is now possible to create hundreds of thousands if not millions of these basic circuits on one chip.
A small change of current on the input terminal will cause a similar change of current through the transistor and an amplified signal will be evident at the output terminal.
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