THE PILGRIMAGE PDF

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The Tradition. The Dance Exercise. El Cebrero. Epilogue: Santiago de Compostela. The Pilgrimage 5/13/05 PM Page. THE PILGRIMAGE ALSO BY PAULO COELHO The Alchemist The Valkyries By the River Piedra I Sat Down and Wept The Fifth Mo. PDF | The present paper aims at analyzing the significance and occurrence of pilgrimages as inner and outer journeys, focusing on their form(s) and role(s] in.


The Pilgrimage Pdf

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The book that became known to posterity as The Pilgrim's. Progress is a Christian classic whose importance is impossi- ble to overstate. For more than two. The Pilgrimage Paulo Coelho Pdf is available here. You can easily Download The Pilgrimage Paulo Coelho Pdf, The Pilgrimage Pdf by. IJJAT AL-WADA THE TRUE STORY, ACCORDING TO IBN H. AZM Camilla Adang Tel Aviv University Introduction In his account of his pilgrimage to Mecca, .

But what is there, I would ask, in the Moslem Pilgrimage so offensive to Christians—what makes it a subject of "inward ridicule"? Do they not also venerate Abraham, the Father of the Faithful? Did not Locke, and even greater names, hold Mohammedans to be heterodox Christians, in fact Arians who, till the end of the fourth century, represented the mass of North-European Christianity? Did Mr. Lane never conform by praying at a Mosque in Cairo?

The fact is, there are honest men who hold that Al- Islam, in its capital tenets, approaches much nearer to the faith of Jesus than do the Pauline and Athanasian modifications which, in this our day, have divided the Indo- European mind into Catholic and Roman, Greek and Russian, Lutheran and Anglican.

The disciples of Dr. Daniel Schenkel'sschool "A Sketch of the Character of Jesus," Longmans, will indeed find little difficulty in making this admission.

Practically, a visit after Arab Meccah to Angle-Indian Aden, with its " priests after the order of Melchisedeck," suggested to me that the Moslem may be more tolerant, more enlightened, more charitable, than many societies of self-styled Christians. And why rage so furiously against the " disguise of a wandering Darwaysh? Is the Darwaysh anything but an Oriental Freemason, and are Freemasons less Christians because they pray with Moslems and profess their belief in simple unitarianism?

I have said. And now to conclude. After my return to Europe, many inquired if I was not the only living European who has found his way to the Head Quarters of the Moslem Faith. The grave has strong links with Islam in Java resulting from the support given by Sunan to the powerful king of Mataram, Sultan Agung, whose kingdom replaced the great Hindu-Buddhist power of Majapahit around Although the site at Tembayat is squarely placed in the history of Java, it has remained a local place of pilgrimage.

Being situated between the two centers of Javanese culture and history, the Kratons of Yogyakarta and Surakarta, the grave is managed differently from the graves of the other wazisanga. Seeking to increase or preserve their worldly power, politicians from Jakarta usually prefer the Imogiri mausoleum to the grave of Tembayat.

In progressing through the physical geography a pilgrim travels and lives through a terrain of culturally constructed symbols. Legends about this saint inform us that he started his career as the rich governor of the city of Semarang. He is thought to have died in CE, a period in Javanese history coinciding with the replacement of the Hindu- Buddhist empire of Majapahit with the Muslim kingdom of Mataram.

Further- more, this time of important political change witnessed an intensive process of Islamic missionary activity aimed at converting the Javanese to Islam. It is a typical Javanese phenomenon to observe that although a Muslim saint is the center of the mausoleum in Bayat, there are also several Christian graves to be found in the burial complex.

FALL end of his life moved to the south of the island of Java. Others say it is his son who is resting in the grave. This son, Adipati Mangkubumi, became the second governor 6upf9of Semarang, but passed on his worldly duties to his younger brother in order to devote himself entirely to meditation and the spreading of Islam.

Other versions of the myth surrounding this Adipati tell that he was the last ruler of the Hindu-Buddhist Kingdom of Majapahit, Brawijaja, who had fled to Semarang after being defeated by the rulers of the new Mataram Empire. This myth, of course, is meant to import the power of the Hindu-Buddhist Majapahit dynasty into the succeeding Muslim Mataram dynasty starting ca.

His son, who later would become Sunan Bayat, was born from the marriage with a Princess from the Islamic empire of Demak, situated close to Semarang. Whoever Sunan Bayat really was, and whoever is buried in the grave that bears his name, for the Javanese believers, Tembayat is not just an ordinary place of pilgrimage.

Tembayat is regularly mentioned in old Javanese manu- scripts, and mythical tales that surround the place. When their number was reduced to eight because wdinumber nine, Siti Jenar, was accused of heretical teachings, it was decided to choose a replacement for him.

The great waZiSunan Kalijaga was in charge of this process. In spite of the fact that Sunan Bayat had not become a religious leader yet and was still the governor of Semarang, he was already predes- tined for this high position. Also, the place Tembayat is sometimes mentioned in connection with political developments in the Mataram Empire.

The Story of Sunan Bayat A common story is still reported in Java about how Sunan Bayat con- verted to Islam, after which he left his hometown Semarang and became a religious leader outside the area where he was known. Interestingly enough, the story is very similar to the one about how Sunan Kalijaga himself went from riches to rags and became a Muslim saint.

The governor of Semarang, who was then called Ki Gede Pandan Arang, or Mangkubumi, was well known for his lavish lifestyle. One day, Sunan Kalijaga visited him disguised as a poor seller of grass aang-alangl. As usual, the governor bought the grass for the minimum price.

Opening the bag, to his great surprise he found a golden sword holder hidden in the grass andelan]. The governor did not under- stand that this golden object contained a message that was relayed to him via a typical Javanese word play. The message was: When it was ready, he organized a huge party and invited many guests. Sunan Kalijaga was not invited but appeared nevertheless, dressed in a simple outfit.

Because of this outfit, his presence went unnoticed. Then Sunan Kalijaga went outside and changed into a gorgeous robe. He now was invited to take a seat of honor at the table.

While leaving the house, Sunan Kalijaga changed back to the simple outfit. The governor thought that this was a practical joke and failed to understand that this action had a deeper spiritual and symbolic meaning.

Now Sunan Kalijaga understood that he had to take stronger action to bring the governor to his senses. He started to visit the governor in disguise as a beggar. Several times the governor threw some coins to him but when the beggar refused to leave, the governor became angry.

Sunan Kalijaga then told him that he had not come to receive coins, but that he was waiting for the sound of the bedug, the drum that is used for the call to prayer in Javanese mosques. After this he threw a fistful of clay to the governor; when the governor caught it the clay immediately changed into gold. This was the moment of enlightenment for the governor and he finally understood that all earthly goods are temporary.

Sindh, Mecca, Harrar, Tanganyika, Camoens & the Arabian Nights.

Now the governor wanted to become the spiritual student of Sunan Kalijaga. But before the master could accept him, he had to fulfill four requirements. The first requirement was that the gover- nor had to pray continuously and preach Islam, converting all the inhabitants under his power in Semarang to Islam. The third requirement was to give to charity with a sincere heart and to donate his riches to the poor in the form of zakaL The final requirement to become a student was to follow the master into his house and light the lamps for him there.

The gover- nor accepted these requirements and joined the master, leaving behind everything he owned. His first wife joined him since she did not want to leave him. Because, however, she was not yet ready and able to let go of her possessions, she filled a bamboo stick with gold and jewelry.

The trip to Tembayat on foot around miles was full of adventures which foretold that the governor was on his way to become a Muslim holy man. Legends tell us that on the road an incident with three robbers took place. Halfway through the journey, three robbers jumped in front of the governor and demanded his money.

He referred them to his wife and advised them to take her bamboo stick so that they would have enough money for the rest of their lives. After grabbing the stick, the robbers started to harass the woman, thinking that she might be hiding more gold. Her husband came to her rescue when she started to call for help. That is how the town now situated on the spot where this incident took place was given its name: The robbers, however, were not impressed by being called wrongdoers and continued to strip the wife in search of valuables.

That is when the governor, with the help of God, changed two of them into creatures with animal heads: This led the robbers to immediate contrition and conversion to Islam, and they vowed to be in the service of the governor. Thus they became his first dis- ciples and were called Seh Domba sheep head and Seh Kewel the biter.

After long and faithful service, they slowly regained their original forms. At a hamlet called Wedi, in the neighborhood near Tembayat, the gover- nor, now called Sunan Bayat, settled down and started to work for a rice merchant called Gus Slamet. Seh Domba and Seh Kewel were instructed to withdraw to the mountains and live a life of meditation.

Not all miracles, however, were positive. It is told that one day Sunan Bayat was looking for rice to download. He stopped a rice seller who was on his way to the market. The man did not feel like selling his goods and lied, saying that he was just carrying sand wedg. Upon his arrival at the market place, the contents of his bag turned out to be sand. In another incident, Sunan Bayat joined the wife of his boss at the market where she sold cooked food.

When the wife realized that he had forgotten to bring the wood for burning, she became angry and started to call him names. This induced him to offer his hands as fuel for the fire. Of course, such incidents made Sunan very famous. Another miracle took place when Sunan exercised his function as the one who fills the water basin for the ritual washing before the Islamic prayer. One day he filled a bamboo basket with water instead. Everyone was amazed when the water did not run out of the basket and it could be used for the ritual washing.

After a while Sunan Bayat felt that the time had come for him to move on to Jabalkat in order to receive the right directions from his master. On his way there he picked up Seh Domba and Seh Kewel from their isolated places. Halfway through the journey his child became thirsty and started to cry. According to the Sunan there was no need for crying because all he had to do to find water was to press his staff into the ground. Indeed, a well with fresh water emerged,.

This well exists until today and still yields drinking water. Finally, the party arrived at Mount Jabalkat where nowadays the village of Bayat is situated. Upon his arrival in Tembayat, Sunan Bayat immediately proceeded to build a mosque on top of Mount Jabalkat. This mosque also functioned as a religious school and soon he gathered a following of future teachers of Islam. This center was in fact the first pesanmn, or Islamic boarding school, in Central Java.

His first assistants were the erstwhile robber Seh Domba and his future second wife, a girl called Nji Endang. At first the new teacher met with fierce resistance from the leaders of the mystical Javanese religion. Without solid proof of possessing ngelmu Sunan could never become an acceptable leader of religion in Java. In the first test he had to catch a high- flying pigeon that was released by Prawira. Sunan took his wooden slipper and threw it in the air, thus killing the pigeon.

After that Prawira threw his hat so high that it became almost invisible. Finally, it is told that Prawira hid under an enormous rock and was easily found. After that, whenever Sunan would perform the adban call to prayer , he would be heard in Demak, more than miles northeast of Bayat.

After spreading Islam for 25 years, Sunan died on a Kliwon Friday, also in the month of Ruwah, and was buried on the top of Mount Jabalkat. Since , they have a mawjjd at Tembayat on this day.

Meeting of Worldly and Spiritual Powers Tembayat also played a role of some importance in Javanese history.

The greatest ruler of Mataram, Sultan Agung A. Hence, the king always has to seek the guidance of a saint. Sultan Agung himself would later also be regarded as a man of significant spiritual powers, and today pilgrims still visit his grave on the south side of Yogyakarta to meditate and seek advice.

Yet, when alive, the sultan was obliged to pay his respects to the saint of his area, Sunan Bayat. According to the first one, Sultan Agung was lost in the woods surrounding his palace and was getting desper- ate because he could not find his faithful assistant Juru Taman. To find his way out, the Sultan decided to meditate in order to reach a state of perfect wisdom but failed in his attempt. Since Sunan was considered a very holy man, it was deemed appropriate that the mauso- leum be constructed in an extraordinary way.

Hence it was forbidden to use horses, regular masons or workers. The people building the mausoleum were carefully selected on the basis of their impeccable spirituality and outstanding behavior. Over , men were chosen.

Pilgrimage pdf

They lined the street from the stone quarry all the way to the grave. Sitting in the reverent sda position of kneeling on their ankles with bent toes, they would pass on the stones by hand. It is believed that, due to this special sacrifice, the mauso- leum became one of the most beautiful in the whole of Java. Other stories surrounding the relationship between Sultan Agung and Sunan Bayat mention the Sultan visiting a classical Javanese shadow puppet show wymgl that was presented in a place far away from his palace.

During the show he learned that the empires of Balambangan and Bali were conspiring against him. When the Sultan was overcome by desperation, he prostrated on the floor to ask God forgiveness for his many sins that had led to this ordeal. At that moment Sunan Bayat appeared to him in the disguise of an old man. Sunan Bayat helped the Sultan to get back to his palace as soon as possible by holding out his walking stick and catapulting the Sultan to his palace with the stick.

According to this story, in order to express his gratefulness, the Sultan decided to renovate the grave of Sunan Bayat in extraordinary fashion. For example, on the gate leading up to the grave the Javanese year is engraved. This corresponds with the year CE, the year in which Sultan Agung introduced the Javanese calendar. Until that time the Javanese had used the Hindu-Saka system based on the solar months, but the new Javanese year combines this system and the Muslim lunar calendar.

All the gates at Tembayat and some of the graves are built in a distinct style reminiscent of the Hindu temples of the Hindu Majapahit Empire. What distinguishes the gates from a regular Hindu temple gate, however, is the fact that there are no longer engravings of animals, as is usual in Hindu gates. The ensuing Muslim culture is dominated by a mystical form of Islam filled with holy saints who are capable of appearing to people in need and of performing miracles.

According to the Javanese tradition, Sunan Kalijaga also performed a similar miracle. This kind of information places the Sunan firmly in the company of valid saints and missionaries of Islam. Furthermore, the stories stress the struggle between the Islamic saint and the Javanese holy men.

Along with his Islamic sanctity, however, he does possess the mystical knowledge that is indispensable for being accepted by the Javanese as a powerful holy person. Formerly powerful men become Muslims but do not let go of their Javanese heritage and knowledge. The Javanese heritage is also guarded by the kratons, the palaces of the sultans of Surakarta and Yogyakarta that still embody the expression of true Islamic and true Javanese culture.

The tradition thus built is kept alive even today by the guards of the graves and the pilgrims. Although few people have actually read the existing manuscripts, the stories continue to be trans- mitted orally.

Most present-day pilgrims arrive by tour buses, cars or motorbikes. The parking lot holds everything they need for a successful pilgrimage: In order to reach the grave, the pilgrim has to climb the winding stairs that go up the mountain. To enter the burial complex, one must download a ticket at a booth that is situated at the foot of the stairs.

The first building the pilgrim finds is an Islamic prayer house, a mmboZh. The prayer house was built in as a result of reformist Islamic influences and serves the pilgrims who, concurring with reformist Islamic beliefs, say that it is forbidden to pray in the neighborhood of a grave.

Brochure in .pdf

Halfway up the stairs, the pilgrim takes off her or his shoes and climbs to the top bare- foot. Most of them were opened during the early s. At the top of the stairs the pilgrim has to register and pay more fees. Opposite the registration point stands the mosque where pilgrims pray who do not object to praying in front of a grave and who, on the contrary, consider the vicinity of the grave to hold an extra blessing.

Between the third and the fourth is the pavilion for the men. Most people, however, avoid these special constructions and prefer to stay right next to the grave. In the middle of the antechamber is an open fire; in front of it sits a jicnr dxz, a guard who offers prayers on behalf of the pilgrims. He also receives the flowers and frankincense pilgrims download in the parking lot. The pilgrim lets the guard know what the subject of prayer is.

The length of the prayer depends on how serious the problem is and also on the amount of the tip that is discreetly put in his hand.

The Fafihabis followed by mention- ing the requests and uttering prayers and praises in formal High Javanese hmo. The Javanese part of the prayers starts with mentioning the names of those who offer the petition, saying that they have especially brought flowers as a gift to the saint. The guard then proceeds with asking forgiveness in advance for mistakes and breaches that might be made in the protocol while visiting the grave.

Only then follows the actual request: The pilgrim enters the platform while kneeling, as if visiting a royal Javanese person.

Hardly ever are prayers pronounced in the Indonesian language. The pilgrims then begin to examine the flowers for kanfi, or blessing buds. According to Javanese belief, the pilgrim now will know if the prayers will be heard, depending on the number of k n f i he or she finds. When the guard outside deems that enough blessing has been found, he urges the pilgrims to come out in order to make space for another ten of the many hundreds that are still waiting in line for their turn to harvest their blessings.

The leftover flowers are first brought to the graves of the spouses and spread out, while a short prayer is recited. All the tombs are covered with a white cotton cloth. So we began to go with him on foot through the very pleasant valley, until we reached a most pleasant orchard, in the midst of which he showed us a spring of excellent and pure water, which sent out continuously a good stream.

The spring had in front of it a sort of pool, where it appears that S. John the Baptist fulfilled his ministry. Then the holy priest said to us: "This garden is called nothing else to this day than2 cepos tu agiu iohannu in the Greek language, or as you say in Latin, hortus sancti Johannis. Many brethren, holy monks, direct their steps hither from various places that they may wash there. The holy priest also told us that to this day, at Easter, all they who are to be baptized in the village, that is in the church 1 S.

John iii. Then, receiving eulogiae2 out of the orchard of S. John the Baptist from the priest, as well as from the holy monks who had cells in the same orchard, and always giving thanks to God, we set out on the way we were going.

There too we gave thanks to God according to custom and pursued our journey. And as we journeyed that way we saw a very pleasant valley opening towards us on the left; it was very large and discharged a very great torrent into the Jordan, and in that valley we saw the cell of one who is now a brother, that is a monk.

Then I, as I am very inquisitive, began to ask what was this valley where the holy monk had now made himself a cell, 1 See p. Jephthah, Judg xii. Then the holy men who were journeying with us, and who knev the place, said, " This is the valley of Corra,1 where holy Elijah the Tishbite dwelt in the time of king Ahab,2 when there was a famine, and at the bidding of God the raven used to bring him food, and he drank water of the torrent.

For this brook which you see running through this valley into Jordan, is Corra. And as we journeyed day by day, on the left side, whence on the opposite side we saw parts of Phoenicia, there suddenly appeared a great and high mountain which extended in length Bible, Cherith.

I Kings xvii. To this Job the church which you see was then built in that place, in such a manner that the stone with the body should not be moved, but that it should be placed, where the body had been found, and that the body should lie under the altar. That church, which was built by some tribune, has been unfinished to this day.

Next morning we asked the bishop to make the oblation, which he deigned to do, and the bishop blessing us, we set out. There too we communicated, and always giving thanks to God we returned to Jerusalem, journeying through each of the stations through which we had passed three years before.

I wished, however, at God's bidding, to go to Mesopotamia in Syria, to visit the holy monks who were there in great number, and who were said to be of such holy life as could hardly be described, and also for the sake of prayer at the memorial of S. Thomas the Apostle, where his body is laid entire. This is at Edessa. Thomas thither, after that He Himself had ascended into Heaven.

Now your affection may believe me that there is no Christian who having arrived at the holy places that are at Jerusalem, does not go on thither for the sake of prayer; it is at the twenty-fifth station from Jerusalem. And since from Antioch it is nearer to Mesopotamia, it was very convenient for me at God's bidding that as I was returning to Constantinople, and my way lying through Antioch, I should go thence to Mesopotamia.

This then, at God's bidding, I did. And as this city is very beautiful and rich and abounds in everything, it was necessary for me to make a halt there, for the borders of Mesopotamia were not far distant. Then starting from Ierapolis,2 I came, in the Name of God, at the fifteenth milestone to the river Euphrates, of which it is very well written that it is the great river Euphrates3; it is huge and, as it were, terrible, for it flows down with a current like the river Rhone, only the Euphrates is still greater.

The Pilgrim Church

And as we had to cross in ships, and in large ships only, I waited there until after midday, and then in the Name 1 i. Augusta Euphratensis. EDESSA Then, journeying through certain stations, I came to a city whose name we read recorded in the Scriptures--Batanis,1 which city exists to-day: it has a church with a truly holy bishop, both monk and confessor, and certain martyr-memorials.

The city has a teeming population, and the soldiery with their tribune are stationed there. Departing thence, we arrived at Edessa in the Name of Christ our God, and, on our arrival, we straightway repaired to the church and memorial of saint Thomas. There, according to custom, prayers were made and the other things that were customary in the holy places were done; we read also some things concerning saint Thomas himself.

The church there is very great, very beautiful and of new construction, well worthy to be the house of God, and as there was much that I desired to see, it was necessary for me to make a three days' stay there. Thus I saw in that city many memorials, together with holy monks, some dwelling at the memorials, while others had their cells in more secluded spots farther from the city. Moreover, the holy bishop of the city, a truly devout man, both monk and confessor, received me willingly and said: "As I see, daughter, that for the sake of devotion you have undertaken so great a labour in coming to these places from far-distant lands, if you are willing, we 1 Bathnae in Osrhoene Bernard.

There seems to be no reference to this place in Holy Scripture. He thereupon led me first to the palace of King Abgar, where he showed me a great marble statue of him--very much like him, as they said--having a sheen as if made of pearl. From the face of Abgar it seemed that he was a very wise and honourable man. Then we entered the inner part of the palace, and there were fountains full of fish such as I never saw before, of so great size, so bright and of so good a flavour were they.

The city has no water at all other than that which comes out of the palace, which is like a great silver river. And straightway Abgar, bearing the letter of the Lord to the gate, with all his army, prayed publicly.

And he said: "O Lord Jesus, Thou hadst promised us that none of our enemies should enter this city, and lo! So baffled were the Persians that they could never afterwards see the way to enter the city, but they surrounded it and shut it in with their hostile forces, at a distance of about three miles, for several months.

Then, when they saw that they could by no means enter, they wished to slay those within the city by thirst. Now that little hill which you see, my daughter, over against the city, supplied it with water at that time, and the Persians, perceiving this, diverted the water from the city and made it to run near that place where they had made their camp.

And on that day and at that hour when the Persians diverted the water, the fountains which you see in this place burst forth at once at God's bidding, and by the favour of God they remain here from that day to this. But the water which the Persians had diverted was dried up at that hour, so that they who were besieging the city had nothing to drink for even one day; which thing is plain to the present time, for no moisture of any sort has ever been seen there from that day to this.

So, at God's bidding, Who had promised that this should come to pass, they were obliged to return to their own home in Persia. Moreover afterwards, as often as enemies determined to come and take the city, this letter was brought out and read in the gate, and straightway all enemies were driven back by the will of God.

The holy Bishop also told me that the place where these fountains broke forth had previously been open ground within the city, lying under the palace of King Abgar, which same palace had been situated on somewhat higher ground, as was plainly visible.

For the custom was at that time that, whenever palaces were built, they should always stand on higher ground. But after that these fountains had burst forth here, then Abgar built this palace for his son Magnus, whose statue I saw near that of his father, so that the fountains should be included in the palace.

And when the holy bishop had told me all these things, he said to me: "Let us now go to the gate by which Ananias the courier entered with the letter of which I spoke. Moreover the holy man told us that from the day on which Ananias the courier entered it with the letter of the Lord, the gate is kept to this day, that no one who is unclean, nor any mourner, should pass through nor should any dead body be borne out through it.

The holy bishop also showed us the memorial of Abgar and of his whole family, very beautiful, but made in the ancient style. He took us also to the palace which King Abgar had at first, on the higher ground, and if there were any other places he showed them to us. It was very pleasant to me to receive from the holy man himself the letters of Abgar to the Lord and of the Lord to Abgar, which the holy bishop had read to us there.

For although I have copies at home, yet it seemed to me more pleasant to receive them from him, lest perhaps something less might have reached us at home, and indeed that which I received here is fuller. So if Jesus our God bids it, and I come home, you too shall read them, ladies, my own souls. In holy Scripture it is called Charran,1 where holy Abraham dwelt, as it is written in Genesis when the Lord said unto Abram: Get thee out of thy country, and from thy father's house, and go to Charran and the rest.

He took us at once to the church, which is without the city on the spot where stood the house of holy Abraham; it stands on the same foundations, and it is made of the same stone, as the holy bishop said. When we had come to the church, prayer was made, the passage from Genesis was read, one psalm was said, and after a second prayer the bishop blessed us and we came out.

Then he deigned to take us to the well whence holy Rebecca used to fetch water,3 and the holy bishop said to us: "Behold the well whence holy Rebecca watered the camels of holy Abraham's servant Eleazar "; thus he deigned to show us each thing.

Bible Haran. It happened very pleasantly for us that we arrived on the day before the martyr's feast of saint Helpidius, which is on the twenty-third of April. For this day is observed with great dignity there on account of the memorial of holy Abraham, whose house stood where the church now is, in which the body of the holy martyr is laid.

So it happened to us very pleasantly beyond our expectations that we should see these holy monks of Mesopotamia, truly men of God, as well as those whose good report and manner of life had reached men's ears far and wide, whom I thought that I could not by any means see, not because it was impossible for God to give me this, Who had deigned to give me all things, but because I had heard that they never come down from their dwellings except on Easter Day and on this day.

For they are men who do many wonders, and, moreover, I did not know in what month was the day of the martyr's feast which I have mentioned; but at God's bidding it came about that I arrived on the day that I had not hoped for. We stayed there two days, for the memorial day and for the sake of seeing those holy men, who 1 The ancient Syriac Martyrology A. Nor were they seen there after the memorial day, for they sought the desert without delay in the night, each one returning to his own cell.

In that city I found scarcely a single Christian excepting a few clergy and holy monks--if any such dwell in the city; all are heathen. And in like manner, as we gazed with great reverence at the place where the house of holy Abraham was at first for the sake of his memorial, so do those heathen gaze with great reverence at a place about a mile from the city, where are the memorials of Nahor and Bethuel. And since the bishop of that city is very learned in the Scriptures, I asked him, saying: "I beg of you, my lord, to tell me that which I desire to hear.

The Scripture does indeed 1 Gen. The bishop said to me: "The place is six miles hence, near the village which then was the farm of Laban the Syrian, and if you wish to go there, we will go with you and show it to you; there are also many very holy monks and ascetics, and a holy church.

There are five stations from here to Nisibis, and five stations thence to Hur,3 which was a city of the Chaldees, but there is now no access for Romans, for the Persians hold the whole country.

For I would not that your affection should think that the monks ever told me 1 Gen. When we had come to the well, prayer was made by the bishop, the passage frorn Genesis was read, one psalm suitable to the place was said and, after a second prayer, the bishop blessed us.

We saw also, Iying on a spot near the well, that very great stone which holy Jacob had moved away from the well, and which is shown to-day. No one dwells there around the well, except the clergy of the church which is there and the monks who have their cells near at hand, whose truly unheard-of mode of life the bishop described to us.

Then, after prayer had been made in the church, I visited, in company with the bishop, the holy monks in their cells, giving thanks both to God and to them, who deigned with willing mind to receive me in their cells wherever I entered, and to address me in such words as were fitting to proceed out of their mouth.

They deigned also to give me and all who were with me eulogiae,2 such as is the custom for monks to give those whom they receive with willing mind into their cells. And the place being in a large plain, a great village over against us was pointed out to me by the holy bishop, about five hundred paces from the well, through which village our route lay. This village, as the bishop said, was once the farm of Laban the Syrian, and is called Fadana;1 in the village the memorial of Laban the Syrian, Jacob's father-in-law, was shown to me; the place was also shown to me where Rachel stole her father's images.

Then, starting from Antioch and journeying through several stations, I came to the province called Cilicia, which has Tarsus for its metropolis.

I had already been at Tarsus on my way to Jerusalem, but as the memorial of saint Thecla is at the third station from Tarsus, in Hisauria, it was very pleasant for me to go there, especially as it was so very near at hand.

See Hastings' D. Thence I entered the borders of Hisauria and stayed in a city called Coricus, and on the third day I arrived at a city which is called Seleucia in Hisauria;1 on my arrival I went to the bishop, a truly holy man, formerly a monk, and in that city I saw a very beautiful church. And as the distance thence to saint Thecla, which is situated outside the city on a low eminence, was about fifteen hundred paces, I chose rather to go there in order to make the stay that I intended.

There is nothing at the holy church in that place except numberless cells of men and of women. I found there a very dear friend of mine, to whose manner of life all in the East bore testimony, a holy deaconess named Marthana, whom I had known at Jerusalem, whither she had come for the sake of prayer; she was ruling over the cells of apotactitae2 and virgins.

And when she had seen me, how can I describe the extent of her joy or of mine? But to return to the matter in hand: there are very many cells on the hill and in the midst of it a great wall which encloses the church containing the very beautiful memorial.

The wall 1 Thecla is honoured as "protomartyr" in the East as well as in the West on Sept. Tradition calls her a disciple of St. Paul at Iconium, but places her grave as here at Seleucia in Isauria.

Justinian built a church in her memory at Constantinople. The Anc. When I had arrived in the Name of God, prayer was made at the memorial, and the whole of the acts of saint Thecla having been read, I gave endless thanks to Christ our God, who deigned to fulfil my desires in all things, unworthy and undeserving as I am. Then, after a stay of two days, when I had seen the holy monks and apotactitae who were there, both men and women, and when I had prayed and made my communion, I returned to Tarsus and to my journey.

From Tarsus, after a halt of three days, I set out on my journey in the Name of God, and arriving on the same day at a station called Mansocrenae,1 which is under Mount Taurus, I stayed there. On the next day, going under Mount Taurus, and travelling by the route that was already known to me, through each province that I had traversed on my way out, to wit, Cappadocia, Galatia, and Bithynia, I arrived at Chalcedon, where I stayed for the sake of the very famous martyr memorial of saint Euphemia,2 which was already known to me from a former time.

On the next day, crossing the sea, I arrived at Constantinople, giving thanks to Christ our God who deigned to give me such grace, unworthy and undeserving as I am, for He had deigned to give me not only the will to go, but also the power of walking through the places 1 i.

When I had arrived there, I went through all the churches--that of the Apostles and all the martyr-memorials, of which there are very many--and I ceased not to give thanks to Jesus our God, Who had thus deigned to bestow His mercy upon me. From which place, ladies, light of my eyes, while I send these letters to your affection, I have already purposed, in the Name of Christ our God, to go to Ephesus in Asia, for the sake of prayer, because of the memorial of the holy and blessed Apostle John.

And if after this I am yet in the body, and am able to see any other places, I will either tell it to your affection in person, if God deigns to permit me this, or in anywise, if I have another project in mind, I will send you news of it in a letter. But do you, ladies, light of my eyes, deign to remember me, whether I am in the body or out of the body. Now that your affection may know what is the order of service operatio day by day in the holy places, I must inform you, for I know that you would willingly have this knowledge.

Every day before cockcrow all the doors of the Anastasis1 are opened, and all the monks and virgins, as they call them here, go thither, and not they alone, but lay people also, both men and women, who desire to begin their vigil early.

And from that hour to daybreak hymns are said2 and psalms are sung responsively responduntur , and antiphons in like manner; and prayer is made after each of the hymns.

For priests, deacons, and monks in twos or threes take it in turn every day to say prayers after each of the hymns or antiphons. But when day breaks they begin to say the Matin hymns.Seh Domba and Seh Kewel were instructed to withdraw to the mountains and live a life of meditation. For I would not that your affection should think that the monks ever told me 1 Gen.

When certain days of the Javanese week that has five days coincide with the Islamic seven-day week, it will be considered a good time for zkzrab. By this way, then, at tha bidding of Christ our God, and helped by the prayers of the holy men who accompanied us, we arrived at the fourth hour, at the summit of Sinai, the holy mountain of God, where the law was given, that is, at the place where the Glory of the Lord descended on the day when the mountain smoked.

Now the preference has shifted to doing the pilgrimage en mme. Bible Zoar. On the opposite side we saw not only Livias, which was on the near side of Jordan, but also Jericho, which was beyond Jordan; to so great a height rose the lofty place where we stood, before the door of the church.